The smallest south Asian animal is the Jarawas pygmy rice rat, averaging 13.5 cm in length and weighing no more than 100 grams.
Listed here is the list of some smallest south Asian animals out of over 10000 species found on this continent.
1) Jarawas Pygmy Rice Rat (Eligmodontia typus)
The smallest south Asian animal is the Jarawas pygmy rice rat, averaging 13.5 cm in length and weighing no more than 100 grams. A rare endemic to the coastal region of southwestern India, this species has been listed as Vulnerable by IUCN since 2004 because of habitat loss due to agriculture practices.
2) White-Bellied Shortwing (Brachypteryx major)
This bird averages 14 cm in length and weighs about 10–20 g. Among all birds, it ties with Storm’s stork as the ninth smallest; among all Passeriformes, however, it is actually one of the larger ones outside of a few very small families. It is an endemic resident breeder on the hills and plateaus of the Western Ghats and hills of southern India.
3) Indian Pygmy Squirrel (Funambulus palmarum palmarum )
The Indian pygmy squirrel is a small species of squirrel native to South Asia. The head-body length is about 91mm, with a long 27cm tail. Rounded ears, red eyes, and buff-colored underparts with the white ventral surface on forelimbs distinguish this species from the very similar-looking Eurasian tree squirrel. This diurnal and arboreal squirrel inhabits forested areas, cultivated fields, and urban gardens in northern India, including Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana Rajasthan Gujrat, western Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand, Oude, Bihar, and Assam.
4) Jerdon’s Nightjar (Caprimulgus atripennis)
This nightjar is found in Southeast Asia and the Greater Sundas. It is one of two species of nightjars that occur in southeast Asia; the other is Wallace’s Nightjar C. indopacificus . The habitat is open forest undergrowth—including logged forests with secondary growth—and plantations up to 1650m altitude. It feeds on flying insects like moths.
5) Indian Pygmy Bat (Tadarida indica)
The Indian pygmy bat is listed as Least Concern by IUCN but to lack of data, there is not enough information about the population status of this species. According to Giannini, “Tadarida indica” is one of the few bats in India that can enter caves (preferably hillside ones) to feed on their prey.
6) Lesser Mousedeer (Tragulus kanchil)
The lesser mousedeer is the smallest known even-toed ungulate. It has a head and body length around 55 cm (22 inches), with a tail up to 36 cm (14 inches). Its weight varies between 2-5 kgs. The lesser mousedeer has three or four stripes on its back that are usually blackish in color; stripes form a pattern similar to that of a chevron pointing up; these stripes are fairly well-defined in young lesser mousedeers, but become less distinct as they age.
7) Jerdon’s Leaf Frog (Nyctixalus jerdonii)
The Lesser Adjutant is the largest bird found in India, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia; it has an average height of 1 meter (3ft). The species was first described by Robert G. Waterhouse in 1839 based on specimens obtained from Nellore. It is widely distributed across the Indian subcontinent south of the Himalayas, extending into northernmost parts of Sri Lanka, through Indochina into southern China and Malaysia.
8) Purple Frog (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis)
The purple frog is a very recently discovered amphibian from the Western Ghats of India. It was described as a new species in September 2003. The frog had been discovered by herpetologist Sathyabhama Das Biju of the University of Delhi, who named it after his mother, Dr. Gayatri Devi Vasudev, and called it “Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis” . It is also known as the pig-nosed frog or purple pignose frog because of its large mouth and snout.
9) Moustached Tree Frog (Agalychnis annae)
The banded leaf frog averages about 7.5 cm (3 inches) in length and is a bright green color that provides camouflage against its environment. The pattern, coloration, and shape of the eyes provide excellent camouflage among dead leaves on the forest floor where it usually hides during daylight hours.
10) Dusky-legged Crake (Porzana fusca)
The Dusky-legged Crake (Porzana fusca), is a species of bird in the family Rallidae. It is found in China, Hong Kong, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. It occurs mainly on small islands off the coast of East Asia; there are large populations in some regions (such as Taiwan), but overall it is not common.
11) Malabar Civet (Viverra civettina)
The Indian brown mongoose or Common Mongoose (Herpestes fuscus) is a small mammal native to South Asia and Southeast Asia. The term “mongo” is also used more broadly to indicate “Mangifera indica”, as in the Hawaiian expressions “mongoose-nut” and “mungo”.
12) Four-striped Ground Squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus)
The four-striped ground squirrel, Ictidomys trivirgatus , is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae. It is endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland.
13) Madras Bubble Nymph (Proboscidactyla ventricularia)
The Madras bubble nymph (Proboscidactyla venusta), also known as the Indian bubble treehopper, is a species of treehopper in the family Membracidae. It is found in Africa and Southern Asia.
14) Sunda Colugo (Cynocephalus variegatus)
The Sunda colugo, also known as the Malayan flying lemur or Malayan colugo, is a nocturnal, arboreal, gliding mammal endemic to the Southeast Asian islands of Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and perhaps Peninsular Malaysia. This species should not be confused with the Philippine colugo or “Philippine flying lemur” (Cynocephalus Volans).
15) Knob-billed Duck (Sidiornis melanotos)
The knob-billed duck (Sidiornis melanotos) is a large waterbird that breeds in Africa and Mozambique. It belongs to the monotypic genus Sidiornis, but it is included within the paraphyletic “perching duck” assemblage; among these, it is sometimes treated as a distinct tribe (Sidiornithini).
16) Jerdon’s Bushchat (Saxicola jerdoni)
Jerdon’s bush chat, Saxicola jerdoni , also known as Jerdon’s rufous bushchat or Jerdon’s chat, is a passerine bird that was formerly placed in the Old World warbler Sylviidae. The species is named after the surgeon-naturalist T. C. Jerdon who collected the first specimen in Tharrawaddy, Burma.
17) Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa)
The clouded leopard is a wild cat distributed from the Himalayan foothills through mainland Southeast Asia into China. Since 2008, it is listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, as its population is estimated at fewer than 10,000 mature individuals and may be declining. It is also listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act.
18) Tapered Pigtoe (Fusconaia burkei)
The taper tail is a freshwater mussel with an extremely long siphonal (under)
19) High-crested Myna (Spreo senegalensis)
The crested myna is a member of the starling family, Sturnidae. They are found across much of Africa south of the Sahara and also in parts of Iran and Pakistan. Like other mynas, they often mimic sounds such as human speech. There are three subspecies: S. s. senegalensis in Senegal; S. s. sharpii in Sudan, Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania, and north-western Uganda; and S. s. stentoreus which occurs from Chad to South Africa. This species has some sexual dimorphism with males having more black on the head and beak than the females.
20) Sunda Laughingthrush (Garrulax pallidus)
The Sunda laughing thrush, also known as the white-cheeked laughing thrush or pallid laughing thrush, is a species of bird in the family Leiothrichidae. It is found in Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests where it forages on the ground like a wheatear.
21) Indian Flying Fox (Pteropus giganteus)
The Indian flying fox ( Pteropus giganteus ) is a species of megabat found in South and Southeast Asia.
22) Masked Palm Civet (Paguma larvata)
The masked palm civet or gem-faced civet is a small, yet powerful spotted felid found in South and Southeast Asia. As it is widely distributed with many populations still thriving, it is listed as Least Concern by IUCN. However, populations of the species are expected to decline in the future with deforestation.
23) Narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata)
The narrow-striped mongoose or Tansan mongoose is a member of the family Eupleridae, subfamily Galidiinae, and endemic to Madagascar. It inhabits tropical dry forests on the island and feeds primarily on birds and their eggs. Due to its large range and diverse habitat, no major threats have been identified and the population trend appears stable.
24) Oriental Small Clawed Otter (Aonyx cinerea)
The Oriental small-clawed otter ( Amblonyx cinerea ) or oriental small-clawed otter, is the smallest otter species in the world, and one of the rarest.
25) Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla)
The Chinese pangolin ( Manis pentadactyla ), also known as the tree pangolin or scaly anteater, is a mammal found in tropical regions of eastern Asia. It is covered in large, brown scales which are made of keratin. The belly scales are reduced to hair-like filaments, except on the throat where they form transverse folds. The tail is long with only vestigial scales. It is primarily nocturnal and arboreal. When threatened, it curls up into a ball.
26) Fraser’s Dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei)
The genus Lagenorhynchus consists of seven dolphin species including the Atlantic white-sided dolphin, dusky dolphin, hourglass dolphin, spinner dolphin, Clymene dolphin, striped dolphin, and the false killer whale.
27) Pygmy Hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis)
The pygmy hippopotamus is one of two species in the family Hippopotamidae, along with its larger cousin, the common hippopotamus. The pygmy hippo is found in forests in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Ivory Coast. This species is believed to be seriously threatened by habitat loss, poaching, hunting for bushmeat, war, and disease. It has been listed as endangered by IUCN since 1986.
28) Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii)
The northern hairy-nosed wombat ( Lasiorhinus krefftii ) is one of three extant species of wombats. It is endemic to the open forests of central Australia. It was formerly considered a subspecies of the southern hairy-nosed wombat which occupies a similar range in Australia’s southeast. The two populations were only recognized as distinct species in 2004.
29) Pygmy Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus pygmaeus)
The pygmy three-toed sloth ( Bradypus pygmaeus ) is one of the two members of the genus, along with the maned sloth. It is endemic to Isla Escudo de Veraguas off the coast of Panama . Little is known about this species.
30) Somali Wild Ass (Equus africanus somaliensis)
The Somali wild ass or white-backed Somali wild ass lives in Somalia, Ethiopia, and northern Kenya. These subspecies once ranged over southeastern Sudan, northeastern Kenya, Djibouti, Eritrea, and southwestern Ethiopia.
31) Lake Chala Narrow-headed Softshell Turtle (Trionyx C.chalanensis)
The Narrow-headed softshell turtle, also known as the East African narrow-shelled tortoise or Lake Chala softy, is a species of freshwater turtle found in Kenya and Tanzania. It was first described by zoologist M.J. Penrith in 1970.
32) Japanese River Otter (Lutra lutra whiteleyi)
The Japanese river otter ( Lutrogale perspicillata whiteleyi ) is an extremely rare subspecies of Eurasian otters native to Japan. Despite its name, it does not occur near any rivers but inhabits rocky coasts along with the Sea Japan, where it hunts for crabs, clams, and fish. It is threatened by habitat loss, pollution of the sea (which makes it more difficult for the otter to find prey), trapping, hunting, and predator control.
33) Pygmy Hog (Porcula salvania)
The pygmy hog is one of the smallest wild suid species. It can be identified by its relatively large size (for a suid), thickly bristled snout, short ears, dark color, stiff mane running along its back, white markings on face and throat, strong sub-orbital ridge, brown iris, and long legs. Only adult males have upper tusks; these measure about 4 cm in length. The body length is 60-70 cm, the shoulder height is 25-30 cm. The weight of adult males ranges from 9 to 16 kg.
34) Lady Ross’s Turaco (Musophaga rossae)
The lady Ross turaco was named after Elizabeth Franklin-Lady Ross. It was previously considered a subspecies of the Bannerman’s turaco, but in 2001 molecular phylogenetic studies showed that it was sufficiently distinct for it to be given full species status.
35) Pygmy Tarsier (Tarsius pumilus)
The pygmy tarsier or thick-tailed bushbaby is a species of primate in the family Tarsiidae. It is endemic to central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The specific epithet means “small” and “dwarf”.
36) Egyptian Jerboa (Jaculus orientalis)
The Egyptian jaculus is one of four species of rodents in the genus Jaculus. It was formerly grouped with two North African jaculus species, but the three eastern Mediterranean species are now considered separate species.
37) Giant Tree Rat (Uromys vika) Uromys vika ,
It is also known as Vika’s giant tree rat, which is a species of rodent in the family Muridae. It is found only on Vangunu Island in the Solomon Islands. The rat lives in rainforest trees and has a diet that consists mainly of fruits.
38) Gough Island Moorhen (Gallinula comeri)
The Gough island moorhen is a member of the rail family, Rallidae. It is a large brown chicken-like bird with dark red legs and feet that lives in Gough Island, a remote volcanic island in the south Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan de Cunha.
39) Bismarck Thicketbird (Trichocichla bimaculata)
The Bismarck thicketbird is one species within the Malaconotidae family, which has nine species spread throughout Africa, Asia, and Australia.
40) Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis)
The Aye-aye, also known as ‘Aye -Aye’, or ‘Dugong dugon’ is a lemur, a strepsirrhine primate native to Madagascar that combines rodent-like teeth that perpetually grow and a special thin middle finger. This foraging method is called percussive foraging (a form of feeding), and involves tapping and then listening.
41) Pygmy Jerboa (Brachiones minimus)
Brachiones minimus is the smallest species of rodent in the world, measuring between 3.1 and 4.6 cm (1.2 and 1.8 in) in body length, excluding the tail, which can be as long as 6 cm (2.4 in). Its tail is short compared to its closest relatives, but still somewhat longer than its own body. They weigh about 2 grams.
42) Pygmy Flying Squirrel (Petaurillus palawanensis)
The pygmy flying squirrel or banahao , Petaurillus palawanensis , is a nocturnal gliding mammal endemic to the island of Palawan in the Philippines. No subspecies are known.
43) Bengal Monitor (Varanus bengalensis)
There are two types of monitor lizards found in India: the marsh or mangrove monitor and the Bengal monitor. The latter is found mainly in rocky areas and deciduous forests, but also ventures into open cultivated fields.
44) Pygmy Loris (Nycticebus pygmaeus)
The pygmy loris, also known as the potto, is a strepsirrhine primate native to the primary rainforests of equatorial Africa.